Walled areas were spread around a central depression that might have been a reservoir and each major mound was surrounded by a mud brick wall, with brick gateways and bastions located at intervals on every face like modern forts. The Citadel was the first locality where the ruling classes dwelt. These changes might have caused flood or different natural calamities. Required fields are marked *. A bull without a hump was engraved on the seal. These were regularly cleaned to avoid blockages. In 1948 Vats excavated Harappa. The Harappans carried out trade in metals, stone, shell etc. However, in this report, in accordance with modern archaeological convention, I will refer to all of these ancient cities collectively as Harappa. Your email address will not be published. Smaller drains from household latrines and bathing areas connected to these larger drains, which had corbelled roofs so they could be buried underneath the main streets when required without caving in. • Out of these, only 6 can be regarded as cities: Harappa, Mohenjo-daro,Chanhu-daro, Lothal, Kalibangan and Banwali. This pattern existed well before mature Harappan era and is found even in the 2nd Period of Harappa that dates from 2800-2600 BCE where there are large north-south streets, a pattern repeated in the Indus and Saraswati towns and cities such as Kalibangan, Rehman-Dehri, Nausharo and Kot Diji. Both Harappan and Mesopotamian people domesticated animals and cultivated grains. Bathing rooms in these houses were situated next to the well which itself was raised above ground level. Fifteen units of workmen’s quarters have been found and this complex was surrounded by a wall. The most important animal is the one horned animal unicorn. Also according to locals, the citadel hill was the site of a major Hindu temple that was destroyed and was at the time the site of a tomb of Nur Shah. Show Answer. Some artifacts were found with this tomb. Extent. Presently, it appears, ... situation implies the webcam is aimed at the user from an exceptionally low point when preferably it is needed to be situated at eye-level. Two mounds have large walls around them, perhaps as much for trade regulation as defense. Rek M. 1 decade ago. Due to loss of aristocracy the Harappan culture collapsed. or so above the former ground level. Some scholars speaks about the continuity of the Harappan culture, while others says about change from urbanization to de- urbanization. Cities like Harappa, which lie on the periphery of the known Indus Valley Civilization, served as gateway cities into the main region where that civilization held sway and were hence more robust or powerful than smaller cities. In Punjab, about 150 years ago, when first-time railway lines were laid down, engineers stumbled upon the site of Harappa which is presently situated in Pakistan. There are more private than public wells, which points to the fact that the public wells probably got polluted or run out due to heavy use and affluent citizens then dug their own. ☂ The cities of the Indus Valley all have a number of common factors that distinguish them from the civilizations of the Bronze Age. Easy availability of wood for burning meant baked bricks were used in abundance in Harappa and Mohenjo-daro. Ancient History Encyclopedia. The total area of the Harappan Culture is accounted to be about 1,299,600 sq. Submitted by Muhammad Bin Naveed, published on 13 December 2014 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. The town planning was achieved through the development of compass, plum bob, and scale, tools which are still found to be in use today. The latter elevation was undoubtedly a natural object; the former being of earth only, was obviously an artificial one …The walls and towers of the castle are remarkably high, though, from having been long deserted, they exhibit in some parts the ravages of time and decay. The most prominent feature of the Harappan era architecture is the drainage system. The exact reason of extinction of such an advanced civilization is not known till now. The Citadel area has a huge mud brick platform which is 6m high and underlies all the construction. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. 2. The civilization that developed in… Harappa is situated along the Ravi river in the district of Montgomery of Punjab province now in Pakistan. Sumer B. Memphis C. Mohenjo-Daro D. Harappa Weegy: Sumer civilization was located along the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in the land of Mesopotamia. The bricks taken from the site were more than enough to furnish 100 miles of the Lahore Multan Railway, testifying to the scale of the buildings that existed there. Apart from this s… The civilization was first identified in 1921 at Harappa in the Punjab region and then in 1922 at Mohenjo-daro (Mohenjodaro), near the Indus River in the Sindh (Sind) region. Mohenjo-Daro is situated along the Indus river at the Larkana district of Sindh province in Pakistan. Harappa is the name of the ruins of an immense capital city of the Indus Civilization, and one of the best-known sites in Pakistan, located on the bank of the Ravi River in central Punjab Province.At the height of the Indus civilization, between 2600–1900 BCE, Harappa was one of a handful of central places for thousands of cities and towns covering a million square … Dec 14, 2014 - Harappa is a large village presently in the province of Punjab in Pakistan. The luxurious items like lapis lazuli, beads, etc were traded through Elam which covered a substantial part of Iran and was located on the eastern boundary of Mesopotamia. Wooden frames were probably used for the doors and windows which have since rotted away. It is almost unbelievable that such arrangement existed in the ancient time unless one studies the remnants of the towns. The layout and compartmentalization of the cities look to have a visual and conceptual connection to the geometric designs on seals from the Early Chalcolithic and even the houses of Mehergarh and perhaps if not directly connected, there is probably indication of a cultural template for the organization of space that continued to form a basis for cultural styles and patterns in the Harappan era. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 13 Dec 2014. Despite several excavations, Cunningham found very little to preserve as the majority of the settlement had been stripped of bricks. MCQ Questions for Class 6 Social Science History Chapter 4 In the Earliest Cities Free PDF Download is available here. Mud mortar and gypsum cement are also in evidence, and mud plaster and gypsum plaster are also found to have been used. This might have starved the urban people. Although relatively little data has been found at Harappa as compared to other sites of the Indus Valley, it nonetheless holds the distinction of being considered the first identified site of the IVC and hence is still a major site in terms of excavations. It probably stood between 3-4 meters high and had rooms and lookout posts on the top. They primarily Cultivated wheat, barley, rai, peas, sesamum, mustard, cotton etc. The modern town is a part of, and lies next to, the ancient city. Large public buildings are the third major category and include both public spaces such as markets, squares and courtyards, and administrative buildings including granaries. The evidence for this being a granary has not been found during excavations and is mostly based on comparisons with Roman building techniques and does not coincide with local traditions. The archaeological remains at Mohenjo-daro extend around 300 hectares. The modern town is a part of and lies next to the ancient city. Due to lack of developed medical facilities the entire population might be wiped out. Pak Study Mcqs. Prepistan - December 24, 2018. The foundations point to a total of 12 rooms in two rows (6 rooms per row) divided by a central passageway that is 7m wide and partially paved with baked bricks. He has also described Harappa while on the same route: About fifty miles eastward of Toolumba, I passed inland for four miles to examine the ruins of an ancient city, called Harappa. Thus it might be said that this site is one of the famed sites where the so-called Aryans overcame the local population and established their dominance. Name * Email * Website. It is spread over 450,000 sqm of space. To have exclusively mud brick platform which is a part of, and lies to. Ruins show signs of remarkable civil engineering and urban Planning tactics & town Planning has amazed archaeologist. 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